Visual Representation of Sound Sources and Interaction Forces in a Teleoperation Interface for a Mobile Robot
Commercial telepresence robots provide video, audio, and proximity data to remote operators
through a teleoperation user interface running on standard computing devices. As new
modalities such as force sensing and sound localization are being developed and tested on
advanced robotic platforms, ways to integrate such information on a teleoperation interface
are required. This paper demonstrates the use of visual representations of forces and sound
localization in a 3D teleoperation interface. Forces are represented using colors, size, bar
graphs and arrows, while speech or ring bubbles are used to represents sound positions
and types. Validation of these modalities is done with 31 participants using IRL-1/TR, a
humanoid platform equipped with differential elastic actuators to provide compliance and
force control of its arms and capable of sound source localization. Results suggest that visual
representations of interaction force and sound source can provide appropriately useful
information to remote operators.
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